How do you cite a secondary source? Secondary sources are works that an original source refers to. Sometimes the information in the secondary sources is more useful to the student using them. Thus, it is important to know how to do secondary citations of sources. In this article, you will learn how to do secondary source citations using three reference styles. So, keep reading to learn how to do a secondary source citation.
Secondary Source Citation in Chicago Style
Write out the Primary Source First
Always specify that you got your information through a secondary source. You can do this by adding the phrase, “cited by” or “quoted in” or “quoting”.
To do this, write out the author’s surname first, followed by a comma, and then the author’s first name of the secondary source. Next, write out the title, location, and year of the publication. Follow this with the phrase “cited by” or “quoted in” and then provide the same information for your primary source.
For example, “Millentia, Jane. Helpful citation guide. Chicago: Birdbox Publishers, 2021. Cited by Cranium, Brooke, Great Citation Guides. New Delhi: Indian Press, 2020.“
Include the Secondary Source in Your Bibliography
Sometimes, you may have to use the secondary source solely in your work. When this happens, you have to enter it separately in your bibliography. This way, it becomes easier for the reader to tell that you used it solely.
For example, “Cranium, Brooke, Great Citation Guides. New Delhi: Indian Press, 2020.“
Secondary Citing in APA (American Psychological Association) Style
Write out the Name of the Author
Start your citation by writing out the author’s surname, followed by a comma, then the initials of their first and middle names, and end each with a full stop.
For example, “Umbrage, U. B.“
Write out the Year of Publication
After writing the name, write out the year of publication. Now, remember, there are two years of publication. One is for the primary source of publication while the other is for the secondary source. Make sure the one you are citing is for the secondary source. To do this, simply write the year in parentheses and add a full stop.
For example, “Umbrage, U. B. (2019).“
Write out the Publication Title
Next in citing a secondary source APA style is to write out the publication title in italics. Also, if the secondary source has subtitles attached to them, separate the subtitle from your title by adding a colon and then put a full stop at the end of the subtitle.
For example, “Umbrage, U. B. (2019). Citation: How-to“
Include the Details of the Publication
Next, include the publication details. These include the name and location of the publication.
For example, “Umbrage, U. B. (2019). Citation: How-to. New York: Ratz Publications.“
Show the Difference
Let the reader know the difference between the primary source and the secondary source. To do this, simply write the phrase “as cited in” before you write the name of the author and the year of publication of your secondary source.
For example, “(as cited in Umbrage, U. B. (2019)“
Citing Secondary Sources in MLA (Modern Language Association)
Write out the Author’s Name
When citing secondary sources, first, write out the author of the source where you got your information. Start by writing the surname of the author, followed by a comma and then the author’s first name.
For example, “Coolio, Roberta.“
If the author’s name is not written in the source, you can give the name of the editor of the source.
For example, “Gaddesden, Wendy, editor.“
Write out the Title of the Secondary Source
After writing out the name of the publication’s author and editor, the next thing is to write out the title of the publication in italics. When writing out the title, make sure you begin the first word with a capital letter. Also, make sure you capitalize any proper nouns or any word that is capitalized already. After that, put a full stop at the end of the title. Also if you have any subtitles in the title, make sure you put it and just separate it from the title with a colon.
For example, “Coolio, Roberta. How to cite and reference a secondary source using three examples.“
If an editor was the one who wrote the publication, then write like this: Write out the editor’s name, put a full stop, and write out the title in italics.
For example, “Gaddesden, Wendy, editor. Academic Writing for Student: How to Structure, Write, Cite, Reference and Submit Your Work.“
Add the Publication Information
After writing out the title of your publication, the next thing to do is give its publication information. The publication information includes the year and the name of the publishing company. To do this, simply write the name of the publishing company after the title, followed by a comma, the year of publication, and a full stop.
For example, “Coolio, Roberta. How to cite and reference a secondary source using three examples. Universal Writing, 2020.“
“Gaddesden, Wendy, editor. Academic Writing for Student: How to Structure, Write, Cite, Reference, and Submit Your Work. Publishing House, 2020.“
Refer to the Primary Source in Your Text
Make sure to write the name of the author of the primary source that contains your secondary source. You can write it together with the information that you are providing. This way, the reader can tell that you did not get your information directly from your primary source. You can also add the year of publication of the primary source.
For example, “Mickelson, 2021, submits that an academic writing without any citation or reference is watery writing — one that is full of personal opinions, devoid of facts.“
Use the Abbreviation “Qtd in”
To make your readers further understand the difference between the primary source and your secondary source, you should add the phrase “Qtd in”. After writing out the name of the author of the primary source and the accompanying information, open a parenthesis. Next, put “qtd in” and write the surname and page number or year of the publication of the secondary source.
For example, “Mickelson, 2021, submits that an academic writing without any citation or reference is watery writing — one that is full of personal opinions, devoid of facts (qtd in Coolio 224).“
Congratulations, you know how to cite your secondary sources.